Towards development of core domain sets for short term and long term studies of calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPPD) disease: a framework paper by the OMERACT CPPD working group
Introduction: Although calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) is common, there are no published outcome domains or validated measurement instruments for CPPD studies. In this paper, we describe the framework for development of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) CPPD Core Domain Sets. Methods: The OMERACT CPPD working group performed a scoping literature review and qualitative interview study. Generated outcomes were presented at the 2020 OMERACT CPPD virtual Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting with discussion focused on whether different core domain sets should be developed for different calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) clinical presentations and how the future CPPD Core Domain Set may overlap with already established osteoarthritis (OA) domains. These discussions informed development of a future work plan for development of the OMERACT CPPD Core Domain Sets. Findings: Domains identified from a scoping review of 112 studies and a qualitative interview study of 36 people (28 patients with CPPD, 7 health care professionals, one stakeholder) were mapped to core areas of OMERACT Filter 2.1. The majority of SIG participants agreed there was need to develop separate core domain sets for "short term" and "long term" studies of CPPD. Although CPPD + OA is common and core domain sets for OA have been established, participants agreed that existing OA core domain sets should not influence the development of OMERACT core domain sets for CPPD. Prioritization exercises (using Delphi methodology) will consider 40 potential domains for short term studies of CPPD and 47 potential domains for long term studies of CPPD. Conclusion: Separate OMERACT CPPD Core Domain Sets will be developed for "short term" studies for an individual flare of acute CPP crystal arthritis and for "long term" studies that may include participants with any clinical presentation of CPPD (acute CPP crystal arthritis, chronic CPP crystal inflammatory arthritis, and/or CPPD + OA).