Occupational health and safety (OHS) training is widely acknowledged as an important means of addressing the risks associated with occupational hazards, but we are often not sure how effective training is. This presentation will report on a systematic literature review of recent, high quality research studies about the effectiveness of training. The review concluded that there was strong evidence that training improves worker OHS practices, but insufficient evidence that it protects health (i.e. prevents injuries, illnesses, symptoms). We will look closely at how this disturbing conclusion was drawn and compare it with results from other recent systematic literature reviews about OHS training.